TERMINOLOGY

TO

Hire counter:
Periodic concept that is invoiced for the maintenance of the client's meter, when it is the property of the distributor

ATR:
Third Party Access to Network

Energy Audit:
It is a comprehensive study of the technical and economic aspects that have direct or indirect relationship with the energy consumption of a building, to be able to establish improvement measures with the objective of obtaining a more rational use of energy and, therefore, a energy saving

B

Bar: pressure unit, equivalent to one million bars, approximately equal to one atmosphere (1 atm).

Social bonus:
It consists of a discount of 25% on the consumption of the electricity bill and in the case of severe vulnerable consumers, it reaches 40%.
Requirements:
Be a vulnerable consumer The IPREM is used to establish which households fall into this category.
-The family units without minors that have an annual income less than or equal to 1.5 times the IPREM (14 payments).
-The families where there is a minor and whose income does not exceed twice the IPREM.
-The families with two minors that do not exceed 2.5 times the IPREM.
-Hobbies with all pensioners who receive the minimum amount in force.

Severe vulnerable consumer:
-The large families, without rent limit, who were previously beneficiaries of the social bonus. -The large families whose income is equal to or less than 2 times the IPREM
-Hobbers with all pensioners who do not exceed the IPREM

C

CNAE:
National Classification Code of Economic Activities

CNMC:
The National Commission of Markets and Competition is the body in charge of preserving, guaranteeing and promoting the correct functioning, transparency and the existence of effective competition and efficient regulation in all markets and productive sectors for the benefit of consumers and users.It is a public body with its own legal personality, independent of the Government and is subject to parliamentary control. It became operational in October 2013.

Marketer:
Company that establishes the contractual relationship with the client and is responsible for the supply of energy. There are two types, the regulated market and the free market. In the regulated market, the government sets the prices, while in the free market, the prices are fixed by each marketer. Currently there are more than 400 marketers throughout Spain


CUPS:
Unique Code of Supply Point. It is a unique alphanumeric code that identifies each supply point and the type of energy that is supplied through it, regardless of your energy supplier. This number of 20 or 22 digits, in Spain, begins with ES followed by the numbering of your distributor.


Main national distributors
Distributor Start No. CUPS
Endesa ES0031
Iberdrola ES0021
Naturgy ES0022
EDP ​​ES0026
Viesgo ES0027


CUR:
Last Resort Retailer, The Government has designated a number of companies, called Reference Marketers or Last Resort Retailers that have the obligation to provide consumers with a right to PVPC and also those who, without being entitled to PVPC, lack temporarily of a contract in free market conditions with a Free Market Marketer.
List:
-Endesa Energía XXI, S.L.U.
-Iberdrola Marketing of Last Resort. S.A.U.
-EDP Last Resort Retailer
-Viesgo Comercializadora de Referencia, S.L.
-CHC Reference Marketer S.L.
-Teramelcor, S.L. (Melilla)
-Electrical Lighting Company of Ceuta COR (S.A. (Ceuta)


D

Distributor:
Company responsible for the Distribution Network, regulating third party access to facilities and taking care of transportation and distribution
It is marked by the geographical area where the registration is requested.
They also have the task of repairing faults in the supply, installing the meters (that is why it is not necessary to change them when changing the commercialization company) and reading the consumption.

Since July 1, 2009 the distribution companies can not sell electricity, so the figure of the marketers emerges. The route of the energy is the following: producer - transporter - distributor - customers. However, between the distributor and the end user the figure of the marketer is established, which pays the distributor for the use of their networks and signs with the customer a contract for electricity or gas to supply this service. That is to say, that even if you are paying for energy to a company, the supply is actually coming through the facilities of another. On the other hand, although a consumer can choose which company buys the energy he can not personally select the one that supplies it.
In Spain there are currently more than 300 distribution companies although there are 5 the main ones by number of clients and extension geographical:
-Endesa (formerly GESA)
-Iberdrola
-Naturgy (formerly Unión Fenosa)
-EDP (formerly Hidrocantábrico)
-Viesgo (formerly E-On)

AND

Energy efficiency:
It is the efficient use of energy, using the same or less to produce more goods and services and thus reduce energy consumption

Active energy:
The sum of the active power over time is the active energy. It is measured in kWh.
It is what the electric company bills (energy term)

Reactive energy: (and reactive energy) is not a power (energy) actually consumed in the installation, since it does not produce useful work because its average value is zero. It appears in an electrical installation in which there are coils or capacitors, and it is necessary to create magnetic and electrical fields in said components. It is represented by Q and is measured in reactive voltiamperios (VAr).
The electricity distributor measures the reactive energy with the meter (kVArh) and if certain values ​​are exceeded, it includes a penalty term for reactive power bills.

Renewable energy:
It comes from natural resources such as wind, water, solar radiation or biomass. They are inexhaustible sources of energy and their use contributes to curb climate change, due to the absence of greenhouse gases in the process of generating electricity.


E-SIOS
It is the System Operator Information System (Red Eléctrica Española) designed especially to execute the processes that allow the safe and economical operation of the Spanish electricity system in real time

F

Power billing:
It is the fixed price for having the power contracted available at all times. It comprises two concepts: billing for access toll (result of multiplying the kW contracted for the price of the power term of the access toll and the number of days of the billing period) and billing by fixed selling margin.

Energy billing:
It is what you pay according to the energy you have consumed. It comprises two concepts: billing for access toll (result of multiplying the kWh consumed in the billing period by the price of the energy term of the access toll) and billing by cost of energy

Frequency:
It is the number of times the signal is repeated in a certain time; its unit of measurement is hertz or Hz (Hz). In Europe it has a value of 50 Hertz-Hz-, while in the United States and Canada it is 60 Hz.

G

Guarantee of Origin (GdO)
It is the certificate that guarantees that a certain amount of energy is produced from renewable sources or high efficiency cogeneration at some point in Spain.
They are issued by the CNC at the end of the year

I

Electric tax:
It is a% in the invoice of the light that appears detailed within the own invoice

Intensity:
It is the quantity of electric charges that circulate through a conductor per unit of time, its unit of measurement in the international system is the ampere (A).

K

kWh:
Unit of energy used to measure the active energy consumption that is applied in the different types of contracts

L

Lines of tension and types: The voltage of the electric power, once generated, is raised to high voltage to reduce the energy losses that occur in transport, and then it is transformed to medium and low voltage to bring it closer to the final consumer through distribution networks. Depending on your voltage there are:


High voltage (AT) lines, between 380,000 and 132,000 V. They are used to transport large amounts of energy over long distances.
Medium voltage (MV) lines, between 132,000 and 1,000 V.
Low voltage (LV) lines, which carry the energy to the point of consumption, at a voltage lower than 1,000 V, since domestic and some industrial equipment work with a voltage of 380 or 220 V.

M

MEFF Power
It is the service of MEFF (Official Market of Options and Financial Futures in Spain) for the market of energy and its derivatives. Like OMIP, it operates in the futures market.

Released market:
It is the part of the electricity system managed by private companies where the law of supply and demand works. They are responsible for the generation and marketing

Regulated market: It is the part of the electrical system regulated by the government and managed by public companies: They are responsible for transport and distribution

MIBGAS:
It is the Iberian Gas Market for Spain and Portugal. It started operating in December 2015, where the purchase and sale of natural gas is negotiated for the intraday, daily, rest of the month and following month markets.


MIBEL:
The Iberian Electricity Market is the result of the integration of the electrical systems of Spain and Portugal with the. As a result, two market operators, OMIE and OMIP, are generated.

MULTICLICK
Energy purchase format where the purchase is made for specific periods of time, usually futures, in non-annualized periods. It is usual to close the price by quarters as the market price varies and leave intermediate periods at a variable price. With this purchase formula, economic advantages are obtained in the price

OR

OMIE:
OPERATOR OF THE IBERIAN ENERGY MARKET (OMI-POLO ESPAÑOL S.A)
He is responsible for the economic management of the system and manages the daily and intraday markets of Spain and Portugal

OMIP:
OPERATOR OF THE IBERIAN ENERGY MARKET (OMI-POLO PORTUGUES)
He is responsible for the economic management of the system and manages the future markets of Spain and Portugal

P

Tolls:
They are also called access fees and are fixed annually by the Ministry. It does not matter what marketer you are with because you have to pay them anyway. According to the CNMC is 41.14% of the bill. This money is collected by the electricity companies and then given to the regulatory body for distribution.
A great variety of concepts are included within the tolls or access fees.
-Transport energy through high voltage networks (2.96% of the bill)
-Distribute electricity from home to home, with installation and reading of meters (10.04% of the bill)
-Primas to the renewable energies (17,22% of the invoice).
-Extrapeninsular compensations (4.14% of the bill).
-Amortization of the deficit: what we pay for the debts of previous years (the famous tariff deficit).
- Social bonus (0.41% of the bill).

Active power:
It represents the capacity of an electrical installation to transform electrical energy into useful work: mechanical (movement or force), light, thermal, chemical, etc. This power is really the power consumed in an electrical installation. It is represented by P and is measured in watts (W). The sum of this active power over time is the active energy (kWh), which is what the electricity company bills (energy term)

Power (concept of the fra):
It is measured in kW and is the fixed flow contracted for the supply

PVPC:
Voluntary Price for the Small Consumer. Tariff that replaced the TUR in May 2014. It is also regulated by the government and to hire it the same requirements as the TUR are required.

R

Red Eléctrica de España (REE):
She is responsible for the technical management of the electrical system.
It consists of performing the necessary activities to maintain the instantaneous balance between production and consumption, and guarantee the continuity and security of the electricity supply, ensuring that the energy produced is transported to the distribution networks with the highest quality standards required.
This management is carried out from its Electric Control Center (Cecoel)
It also has the responsibility to develop, expand and maintain this network.

S

Energy sector:
It is composed of 5 agents: producer, transporter, distributor, marketer and the final customer.

Interruptability service:
Consists of the willingness to stop consuming energy by large energy consumers (especially industry). In this way the demand is reduced and there may be a greater balance in the market. In exchange for this service, those companies that would stop consuming receive an economic remuneration. Currently said compensation is valued
in 500 million euros for allowing them to cut off the electricity supply in the event that there are spikes with excess demand or a power station stops generating due to a failure

Electric system:
It is the set of elements that operate in a coordinated manner in a determined territory to satisfy the demand of electric energy of the consumers.
The electrical systems consist basically of the following elements:
 -The centers or generation plants where electricity is produced (nuclear, hydroelectric, combined cycle, wind farms, etc.),
-Transportation lines of high voltage (AT) electric power,
-The transformer stations (substations) that reduce the voltage or voltage of the line (High voltage / Medium voltage, Medium voltage / Low voltage),
-The medium and low voltage distribution lines that carry electricity to the points of consumption,
-The electrical control center from which the energy generation and transport system is managed and operated.

T

Rate: Unit price set by the Ministry of Industry that is assigned to the contract based on the consumption forecast, which is calculated according to the gas appliances installed in the home.

Access fee:
It is the rate contracted with the distributor through the marketer.
It is marked by the contracted power necessary for the intended activity.
If there is a change of activity, it is probably necessary to make a change in the power

Free market light rate:
In the Spanish free market there are more than 500 marketers where you can choose the best offer for your needs. Apart from billing the energy, they are also responsible for acting as intermediaries with the distributors, for your energy bills to be correct and / or to demand from the distributor, customer service, to calculate what your savings may be and to manage changes in the tariff and / or power contracted.

Regulated market light rate:
They are tariffs regulated by the Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Commerce on a quarterly basis.
The client can contract with any of the marketers of last resort the rate of last resort.
The price is variable and they are different for each hour of each day and they are based on the prices that are published daily by Red Eléctrica de España from 20:15 the previous day.
This rate can only be obtained by those customers who have contracted less than 10 kW


Power term and access rate:
Depending on the contracted power, you will have a type of access fee

Low voltage
Rate 2.0A / 2.ODHA up to 10 kW of contracted power
Rate 2.1A / 2.1DHA between 10 kW and 15 kW of contracted power
Rate 3.0A more than 15 kW of contracted power
High Voltage (1kV)
Rate 3.1A up to 450 kW of contracted power and less than 36 kV
Rate 6.xA from 450 kW of contracted power at least in one period


Fixed term:
Periodic concept that is billed for the continuous availability of the service. It is a fixed amount established by the Ministry of Economy and published in the Official State Gazette (BOE). The amount varies depending on the rate contracted by the client

Variable term: Periodic concept that is invoiced for the consumption in kWh performed. It is an amount that results from multiplying the energy consumed by the price of the same (in euros / kWh) defined in the rates set by the Ministry of Economy and published in the BOE

TUR:
Last Resort Rate, was an energy tariff managed by the Government to set the price of electricity and gas. It was in force for almost 5 years in our country, from July 1, 2009 to May 31, 2014 and was replaced by the Voluntary Price for the Small Consumer (PVPC). The tariff change occurred due to the process of energy liberalization promoted by the European Union.
Requirements for hiring:
In electricity: Contracted power equal to or less than 10 kW and voltage not exceeding 1 kV
In Gas: Contracted pressure less than or equal to 4 bar and an annual consumption of less than 50,000 kW

V

Watt:
It is a unit of measurement of the international system. It equals 1 July per second (1 J / s). Its symbol is the W. It is used to measure the power.

Voltage:
Also called tension, it is the work that must be applied to move electric charges between two points, that is, the force that drives the electrons; its unit of measure is the volt (V).


Sources consulted
Red Eléctrica de España : https://www.ree.es/
National Energy Commission : https: //www.cne.cll
National Commission of markets and competition https://www.cnmc.es/
Organization of Consumers and Users https://www.ocu.org/
Digital newspapers : www.expansion.com www.elcorreo.com